Air Conditioning Technology In the 14th Century

Did you know that ancient Aircond (AC) technology has been around since the 14th century? For travelers to Iran, they have the opportunity to see the ancient technique of air conditioning.

In the summer, the city of Yazd, 625 km from the capital of Tehran, will be 40 degrees Celsius. The air conditioning in question is a chimney with holes to trap the wind.

The trap will draw cooler temperatures down to the bottom of the house, either in the living room or in the basement to cool down easily.

According to the study, the wind trap could reduce the temperature in a space of about 10 degrees. From ancient Persia and Egypt to Babylonia and Arabia, ancient civilizations have adapted their architecture by developing natural ventilation methods.

Examples of these wind traps can be found in the Middle East, Egypt, Pakistan and India. However, since the wind trap is located at the highest point of the building, it is vulnerable to damage.

The oldest wind trap in Iran was made in the 14th century. The references to the wind trap have been written in the work of Persian poets since the 5th century, Nasir Khusraw.

Most of the wind traps located on the rooftops of Yazd City houses are rectangular, hexagonal, or octagonal, each with holes from four angles to blow wind blowing in different directions.

Winds in Yazd town are coming from many directions, unlike Maybod, a small town about 55 km northwest of Yazd, where wind traps have only one outlet to prevent dusty winds from desert winds blowing from the north.

But in Yazd, it is surrounded by mountains that prevent the presence of desert winds. When there is no wind, the wind trap acts as a chimney that creates pressure and is able to push warm air up and out through the tower while making the house feel cooler inside than outside.

The use of wind traps has now stopped following the emergence of modern AC. Today, people there leave their traditional homes and occupy more modern homes. Homes are vacant or rented out to immigrants and workers.

The houses there were also bought by wealthy people in Tehran or Shiraz and they turned it into a Hotel. The city of Yazd became the Unesco World Heritage in 2017 that encouraged the preservation of some of its historic architecture.

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